News Displays: Prohibition Becomes Law, Tuesday, 1/16Need to keep current, look to the past, teach a topic? The Everett Cafe features daily postings of news from around the world, and also promotes awareness of historical events from an educational context. Be sure to check the news postings on Learning at the Library, where you can delve into history.
Ratified on January 16, 1919, the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, prohibited the “manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes”. This law was influenced by the Temperance Movement, which began in the early 19th century -- a movement that started with the conservative use of alcohol but led to the campaign for abstinence on health, social, economic, and moral grounds.
In 1933, Prohibition was repealed, owing to the inability to prevent large-scale distribution of alcohol and increased organized crime.
On January 22, 1973, the Supreme Court passed a landmark ruling in the case of Roe versus Wade that recognized a woman’s right to make her own personal medical decisions — including the decision to have an abortion without political interference. The court held that a set of Texas statutes criminalizing abortion in most instances violated a woman’s constitutional right of privacy. The state could regulate abortion at approximately the end of the first trimester of pregnancy where viability or life outside the womb is possible.
The issue remains hotly contested, to the extent that the Roe versus Wade ruling has been refined. There are for example, restrictions on abortion procedures; enforcement of surgical standards in clinics; and admittance of abortion doctors to nearby hospitals.
Known as the "Father of the Nation", Mahatma Gandhi, the political and spiritual leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule, was shot three times at 5:17pm on January 30, 1948 at point blank range by Hindu extremist, Nathuram Vinayak Godse, during evening prayer at Birla House in Delhi. A world leader and human right activist who employed nonviolence civil disobedience and non co-operation to spur political and social change, Gandhi was 78 years old at the time of his death. Gandhi's funeral was attended by millions and he was mourned throughout the world.
On January 4, 1999 the euro debuted as the new financial unit of eleven European nations (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain) which sought greater unity and growth in the economy; established by the 1992 Maastricht Treaty on European Union, the euro consisted of eight coins and seven paper bills. Euro cash began to circulate some three years later, theoretically simplifying the ability to conduct business and travel throughout Europe. Today, 19 of 28 member states use the euro, making it is the second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar.
News will highlight the history, development, and impact of the euro.
No Child Left Behind was signed into law by President George W. Bush on January 8, 2002. Co-authored by Representatives John Boehner (R-OH), George Miller (D-CA), and Senators Edward Kennedy (D-MA) and Judd Gregg (R-NH), it was legislation that supported standards-based education reform, where high standards and measurable goals sought to strengthen educational outcomes. All public schools received federal funding to administer a statewide standardized test annually to all students, with steps taken to improve schools where results were poor. With a focus on reading, writing, and math, NCLB tied academic expectations and school accountability to government funding.
News will focus of the controversies caused by this landmark legislation and paving of the way for "Every Child Succeeds", signed into law by President Obama on December 10, 2015.