On November 21st, 2012, Egyptian Foreign Minister Mohamed Kamel Amr and United States Secretary of State Hilary Clinton announced a cease fire between Israel, a Middle Eastern country on the Mediterranean Sea regarded as biblical Holy Land, and Hamas, a Palestinian Sunni-Islamic fundamentalist, militant, and nationalist organization, that would take effect at 21:00 GMT+2. This ceasefire resulted after an eight-day, intensive war campaign, known as "Operation Pillar of Defense" in the Hamas-governed Gaza strip; the conflict was precipitated by the killing of Chief Ahmad Jabari via Israeli airstrike and the consequent launch of 100 rockets over Israel.
In the terms of agreement, as published in Haaretz and announced by the Office of the Egyptian President:
- Israel shall stop all hostilities in the Gaza Strip land, sea and air including incursions and targeting of individuals.
- All Palestinian factions shall stop all hostilities from the Gaza Strip against Israel including rocket attacks, and all attacks along the border.
- Opening the crossings and facilitating the movements of people and transfer of goods, and refraining from restricting residents' free movements, and targeting residents in border areas and procedures of implementation shall be dealt with after 24 hours from the start of the ceasefire.
- Other matters as may be requested shall be addressed.
- Setting up the zero hour for the Ceasefire Understanding to enter into effect.
- Egypt shall receive assurances from each party that the party commits to what was agreed upon.
- Each party shall commit itself not to perform any acts that would breach this understanding. In case of any observations, Egypt – as the sponsor of this understanding – shall be informed to follow up.
However, in 2014 the cease fire agreement grew increasingly unstable as nations saw increases in cross-border shootings, rockets, and mortars from Gaza, as well as infiltrations, airstrikes, and assassinations by Israel Defense Forces (IDF). To this day, governments and grassroots' organizations are working towards peace in a longstanding conflict whose roots can be traced to the "Six Day War" or "June War" in 1967 which was fought between Israel and a coalition of Arab states that included Egypt, Syria, and Jordan.
The following articles are drawn from Proquest Historical Newspapers, which informs and inspires classroom teaching and learning.
- Rudoren, J., & Kershner, I. (2012, Nov 18). Diplomats Confer in Cairo, Pressing for a Cease-Fire. New York Times (1923-)
- Bronner, E., & Kirkpatrick, D. D. (2012, Nov 21). U.S. Seeks Gaza Truce as Foes Step Up Attacks: Clinton Arrives on Deadliest Day of Clash--Obstacles to Long-Term Solution. New York Times (1923-)
- Ruadhan, M. C. (2012, Nov 22). US, Egypt Co-Ordinate Fragile Ceasefire: Hillary Clinton Negotiates with Leaders in Jerusalem, Ramallah and Cairo. The Irish Times (1921-)
- A New Israel-Hamas Cease-Fire: The Temporary End to Bombardment and Violence Is Not Enough to Ensure Peace. (2012, Nov 22). New York Times (1923-)
- Kirkpatrick, D. D., & Rudoren, J. (2012, Nov 22). Israel and Hamas Agree to a Cease-Fire, For Now, After a U.S.-Egypt Push: Calm Arrives as Gaza Invasion Is Averted--Tough Issues Left For Later Talks. New York Times (1923-)
- Rudoren, J., & Kershner, I. (2012, Nov 23). Factions in Gaza Make Unity Vow After Cease-Fire: Celebrations Ring Out in Israel, an Atmosphere of Relief and Sover Determination. New York Times (1923-)
- Hamas Cries Victory; Truce with Israel Holds. (2012, Nov 23). Visalia Times-Delta (2001-2014)
- Rudoren, J. (2012, Nov 25). Hamas Claim of Progress Complicates Talk of Truce: Statement on Terms dDaws Israeli Denial. New York Times (1923-)
- Gordon, M. R. (2012, Nov 25). A Fragile Cease-Fire Achieved By Leaving Thorny Issues Unresolved. New York Times (1923-)
- Erlanger, S. (2012, Dec 08). Exiled Leader of Hamas Makes His First Visit to Gaza: An Emotional Event Following a Clash with Israel. New York Times (1923-) iled-leader-hamas-makes-his-first-visit-gaza/docview/1705904758/se-2
- Erlanger, S., & AkramK, F. (2012, Dec 25). A Cease-Fire Helps Fishermen, But Risks Remain. New York Times (1923-)
- Kershner, I. (2012, Dec 31). Israel, in Shift, Lets Building Materials Into Gaza. New York Times (1923-)
- Kardelj, Nejc. Israel Vs. Hamas. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2010. e-book
- Kuriansky, Judith. Beyond Bullets and Bombs: Grassroots Peacebuilding Between Israelis and Palestinians. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2007. Course Reserves, New Faculty, TCANA DS119.76 .B526 2007. e-book
- Kuriansky, Judith. Terror in the Holy Land: Inside the Anguish of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2006. Stacks, New Faculty, TCANA DS119.76 .T453 2006
- LeVine, Mark, and Gershon Shafir, eds.. Struggle and Survival in Palestine/Israel. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2012. e-book
- Zuhur, Sherifa. Hamas and Israel : Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics. Carlisle, PA: U S Army War College Strategic Studies Institute, 2008. e-book
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